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Prodi at the helm of a large center-left coalition. Prodi’s plan points to the constitution of a force that unites the various reformist components (La Margherita, the new political center set up in 2002, and DS). The elections give a victory with very narrow margins to the center-left, united in the alliance called the Union (in addition to the Margherita and the DS, the radical left and other minor formations are part of it). After the election of the new President of the Republic, Diessino G. Napolitano, Prodi forms the new government. In the executive there are marked divergences on many issues and the difficulties arising from the attempt to reconcile the different political cultures represented in the government soon emerge. These difficulties bring up again the problem of the unfinished form of Italian bipolarism and the complexity of the long transition that began in the last decade of the twentieth century. The delays in politics are part of a more general process of difficult adaptation of the country to the new scenarios of European and global interdependence.

In February 2007 the government fell to the Senate on foreign policy issues and this led to the resignation of Prodi, who was, however, renewed his post. A new and fatal crisis of the majority occurred at the beginning of 2008, leading to early elections characterized by new processes of aggregation in the center-left (birth of the Democratic Party-PD) and in the center-right. In April 2008, the victory of the People of Freedom, related to the Northern League and the Movement for autonomy, led to the formation of the fourth Berlusconi government.

In 2009, the process of merging the center-right formations was completed in the confluence of the National Alliance and Forza Italia in the Popolo della Libertà party (PdL). The primary object of the government action was the measures to tackle the fallout at national level of the global economic and financial crisis, following which there is a decline in GDP of more than 5%, with an unemployment rate rising to 8 %. In 2010, the co-founder of the Popolo della Libertà G. Fini left the party and then founded a new one, Future and freedom for Italy, which passed to the opposition. In November 2011, after the vote in the Chamber of Deputies on the State accounts, approved only thanks to the abstention of the opposition, having acknowledged the difficulties of the majority and due to the serious moment of financial and economic crisis, both internal and international, Berlusconi was resigned from the office of Prime Minister, a position assumed by the economist M. Monti who formed a new executive to face the political and economic crisis in progress. In the first phase of his government, Monti spent his authority in Europe, having been Commissioner for competition and the internal market, to face the international economic crisis, to restore credibility to Italy, lower the spread and avoid risk default. In December 2011, the government launched the so-called “save-Italy decree”, a package of urgent measures to ensure financial stability, growth, equity, asking all citizens to make an effort, including taxation, to bring the accounts back under control public. In the second phase called “Grow-Italy”, the government approved a package of structural reforms for growth, which aim to remove two constraints: insufficient market competition and inadequate infrastructure. The series of reforms undertaken should have made it possible in the short term to steer the national economy out of the recessionary spiral and possibly, in the medium / long term, to align it with the growth rates of European and international partners. In December 2012, Monti resigned after the approval of the stability law. The decision came after a speech in the Chamber of Deputies by the secretary of the PDL, Angelino Alfano, who is highly critical of the government’s economic policy. In the same month, Monti presented his candidacy for the political elections of the following year to lead a new centrist coalition called Con Monti for Italy in the Senate and a Civic Choice list – Con Monti for Italy together with the lists of ‘UDC and FLI in the Chamber of Deputies.

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